Susan Cote

Susan Cote

Susan Cote is a Registered Dietitian/Nutritionist with a Master’s Degree in Dietetics and Nutrition. Susan was hired to start a Nutrition Program for the South Florida YMCA, where they will be offering nutrition and wellness classes for the YMCA members and employees of the Y, consultations and custom meal planning will also be available. She began her career working as a clinical dietitian with Baptist Health South Florida, then transitioned over to preventative and wellness nutrition. Susan taught culinary and nutrition classes at Johnson & Wales Culinary School and also worked for Florida Blue providing nutrition and wellness lectures for their corporate clients. Prior to becoming a Registered Dietitian, Susan worked for several years as a private chef aboard super yachts based out of Ft Lauderdale. She has a passion for great food and believes that everyone can fit healthy eating into their lifestyle without spending a fortune or a lot of time in the kitchen. Come and get a taste of our nutrition program at the South Florida YMCA. Email:

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Everything You Wanted to Know About Intermittent Fasting from a Dietitian

As a dietitian, I often get asked about intermittent fasting. What is it? Are there any benefits to intermittent fasting (IF)? How long do I have to go without eating? Can I work out when I fast? Who should not do Intermittent Fasting?

We are a 24/7 nation. Food is available about every place you turn. We are bombarded with commercials about fast food and we have delivery companies that will deliver food anytime, anywhere from your favorite restaurants. Food is easily accessible all of the time. And most people find it difficult to fast. 

Over the years as portion sizes have increased, so has our waist size and risk for CVD and type 2 diabetes. In fact, an estimated 88 million Americans (more than 1 in 3) have prediabetes. And most of them don’t know they have it. Pre-diabetes puts you at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke. 

Before considering intermittent fasting, check with your doctor, especially if you have been diagnosed with a chronic disease or if you are on certain medications that require you to take them with food. 

What is intermittent fasting?

It involves metabolic switching from one fuel source to another and reduction of cellular stress. The key to intermittent fasting is the timing of the fast. 

The science behind Intermittent Fasting is that when we eat carbohydrates they are quickly broken down into sugars which our cells use for energy. If we eat too many carbs or our cells cannot use what we have eaten, any extra is stored in our liver as glycogen and in our fat cells as fat. The hormone insulin made by the pancreas, helps get the sugar into the cells.

Between our meals, our insulin levels normally will go down and our fat cells will release the stored sugar to be used as energy.  When we let our insulin levels go down, we start burning fat. The goal of IF is to allow the insulin level to go down enough for a longer period of time to help burn off the fat to lose weight. 

How do I start intermittent fasting? How long do I go without eating? 

There are several ways to approach intermittent fasting.

  • You may eat during an 8-9 hour window and then fast the rest of the time. For example: Eat breakfast at 9:00 AM and have your dinner at 5:00 and then do not eat again until the next morning at 9:00. This will be about 16 hours of intermittent fasting, most of it while you are sleeping. This seems to be the easiest way to do intermittent fasting, since you are sleeping through most of the fast. (Unless of course, you are a sleepwalker who wears out a path to the kitchen during your nightly walks.)
  • There is the 5:2 intermittent fasting approach: where you eat regularly for 5 days of the week, then on the other 2 days, you eat one 500-600 calorie meal each day and fast the rest of the day. As a dietitian, I think 500-600 calories/day is too low of an intake. 

Going long periods without food (48-72 hours) is not any better for you and could actually encourage your body to start storing fat because it thinks you are trying to starve it.  

It can take your body several weeks before it gets used to intermittent fasting. Initially you may feel hungry and/or irritable, however people that can get through those weeks report feeling better from intermittent fasting. 

So during the fasting period, can I drink beverages?

Yes, you can drink water, carbonated water without calories, black coffee and tea without milk or sweetener. This does not mean that during your eating period you can pack in the calories and eat junk food or highly processed refined foods and sweets. Eat your normal 3 meals and a snack if that’s what you typically eat. 

Can I workout when I am fasting? 

When fasting your glycogen stores will become depleted and you will start burning fat as fuel, so during your workout you will be burning more fat. But you may also be breaking down the muscle you worked hard to build to use as protein for fuel. And you may have less energy to perform your workout or hit the wall sooner due to lack of available fuel. In my opinion, I would not exercise on the days you fast. 

What are the benefits of intermittent fasting?

A New England Journal of Medicine study found that intermittent fasting in the short term can lead to increased insulin sensitivity and reduced waist circumference and in the long term, increased longevity and decreased incidence of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. 

Source: Effects on Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging and Disease; de Cabo R, Mattonson MP New England Journal of Medicine.  Dec. 2019

Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual review of Nutrition. August 2017

The Obesity Code, by Jason Fung, MD

Intermittent fasting: Surprising Update- Harvard Health. 

As a dietitian, I often get asked about intermittent fasting. What is it? Are there any benefits to intermittent fasting (IF)? How long do I have to go without eating? Can I work out when I fast? Who should not do Intermittent Fasting?

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Susan Cote

You're Only As Good As Your Gut. It's Time to Take Care of It

For those of us striving for ripped abs or the coveted six-pack, let’s take time out to look at what’s underneath those abdominal muscles. The gastrointestinal system, also known as your GI tract or gut, has a lot to do with how healthy you are.

“Our gut plays a major role, not only in our gastrointestinal health, but in the health and well-being of the entire body,” says Dr. Lisa Ganjhu, a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center.

Get to Know Your Gut

Your microbiome is as much your body’s footprint as your DNA. It is unique to you.

Your microbiome is an ecosystem that resides inside your gut, specifically your large intestine (colon).  You are the host to 100 trillion microbes and you want to keep the good microbes happy so they proliferate and stick around. On the other hand, like a bouncer at your favorite nightclub, you want to discourage the trouble maker microbes from getting out of control.

Without taking a deep dive into human anatomy or advanced nutrition, the gut is often referred to as our second brain. Your gut and your brain are constantly communicating.  Your gut sends a message to your brain which then helps us to determine what, when, how much and how fast to eat and drink.

Your gut is where 90% of the body’s serotonin (the happy hormone) is produced. In fact most of our emotions are generated in our gut, not our brain. Since serotonin regulates our appetite, body temperature, sleep cycles and sexual desire, we definitely want more of this happy hormone.

Taking Care of Your Gut

So what foods can you eat to increase your levels of serotonin naturally to keep your appetite in check, body temperature regulated, sleep like a baby and boost your libido? Consuming foods that contain the essential amino acid, tryptophan, which aids in production of serotonin are lean protein like: salmon, chicken, turkey, eggs, spinach, nuts and seeds, dairy and soy products.

Regular exercise and exposure to light can also help increase your serotonin levels. In South Florida, we get plenty of natural sunlight, so get outside to soak up those rays for a minimum of 20-30 minutes per day. If you have any history of skin cancer, then obviously take precaution. People who hail from more Northern states can experience a depression known as SAD Seasonal Affective Disorder, during the winter season due to shorter days of light.

How to Reward Your Gut

Another hormone generated in our gut is dopamine also known as our reward hormone. Dopamine is a brain chemical or neurotransmitter that influences your mood, and is associated with pleasure and reward. And who doesn’t like to be rewarded? When your brain is expecting to be rewarded, the hormone dopamine is released. An imbalance in the levels of both of these hormones have been linked to anxiety, aggressive behavior, and depression.

For your body to make dopamine, consume foods that contain the amino acid Tyrosine. Tyrosine containing foods include almonds, bananas, avocados, beans, fish, chicken and eggs.

Balance the portion of animal protein on your plate by adding lots of plant-based foods: cruciferous veggies like cauliflower, cabbage, bok choy, broccoli and Brussel sprouts and don’t forget your leafy greens like arugula, collards, kale, microgreens, spinach, Swiss chard and watercress. All of these plant-based carbs help feed the good gut bacteria so they will stick around. Ditch the processed, refined foods full of fat and sugar to discourage those trouble making microbes from proliferating so they don’t take over the party.

You have put in the hard work to get those abs in primo shape, so be a great host to your gut microbes and eat the food that keeps them in balance and happy. Trust your gut, your body will thank you for it.

To find out more about how the Downtown Miami YMCA can help you achieve your health and wellness goals, please contact us at

For those of us striving for ripped abs or the coveted six-pack, let’s take time out to look at what’s underneath those abdominal muscles. The gastrointestinal system, also known as your GI tract or gut, has a lot to do with how healthy you are.